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Pile-Stiffness Factor K

The pile-stiffness factor is defined as:

where:

Ep

-

elastic modulus of pile material [MPa]

Es

-

average value of secant modulus of soil along the pile shaft [MPa]

Ra

-

ratio of area of pile section to area bounded by pile outer-circumference [-]

where:

A1

-

average area of cross-section of pile [m2]

A2

-

area of pile shaft [m2]

(for stiff piles Ra= 1)